It took Simon Faithfull 3 years to be granted permission to sink a boat off the Isle of Portland, a few km south of Weymouth, in Dorset, England.

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© Simon Faithfull. Photo: Gavin Weber

What might sound like an ecological abomination is actually the start of a process that will create a new eco-system beneath the sea: an artificial reef. The sunken boat will provide a hard surface to which algae and invertebrates adhere, providing food for fish.

The artist bought the boat off eBay for 75 pounds. It was called Brioney Victoria and had been rotting for decade at a Canvey Island yard. He emptied it, added a concrete wheelhouse to make it look like a working boat and then stripped it of anything that could potentially be harmful.

Once ready, the small fishing vessel was towed out to sea. Faithfull set it alight, opened the seacocks, let water into the boat and dove off as it started sinking.

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© Simon Faithfull, REEF, Sinking of Brioney Victoria ship. Photo: Gavin Weber

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© Simon Faithfull, REEF, Sinking of Brioney Victoria ship. Photo: Gavin Weber

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© Simon Faithfull, REEF, Sinking of Brioney Victoria ship. Photo: Gavin Weber

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© Simon Faithfull, REEF, Sinking of Brioney Victoria ship. Photo: Gavin Weber

Five cameras were mounted on board to record the boat's descent and they are still monitoring its transformation, transmitting images via a dedicated website and relaying them to exhibitions. The first one is at Fabrica, a former chapel turned art gallery in Brighton. The show, which is part of the Brighton Photo Biennial, will later move to Calais and Caen.

In the Brighton gallery, a big overhead screen show the boat smoking and very slowly sinking beneath the waves. A series of monitors at ground level broadcast the images from the drowned boat.

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Reef, installation view at the Brighton Photo Biennial 2014. Photo: Nigel Green

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Simon Faithfull, screenshot from live videp

Faithfull was interested in investigating how an ordinary object at the end of its existence is given a new, almost eternal life.

Like some of the artist's previous works, REEF documents the plight of a camera exposed to extreme elements or sent on a journey from which they might never come back. In 2003, for example, Faithfull sent a video camera attached to a weather balloon into the stratosphere.

Simon Faithfull Interview for REEF Project

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© Simon Faithfull, REEF, Sinking of Brioney Victoria ship. Photo: Gavin Weber

Simon Faithfull will be giving a talk at Lighthouse on Tue 21 Oct 7- 8.15pm. And if you miss the evening, check out REEF at Fabrica in Brigton as part of the Brighton Photo Biennial. The show is open until 23 November 2014.

Also part of the Biennial: Amore e piombo: The Photography of extremes in 1970s Italy.

Sponsored by:





This is Giulio Andreotti, a legend in Italian politics:

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Giulio Andreotti, Rome, 1970s © TEAM Editorial Services/Alinari

For almost half a century, Andreotti occupied all the major offices of state. He held the post of prime minister 7 times and for longer than any other postwar Italian politician except Silvio Berlusconi. Andreotti was not as farcical as Berlusconi though but he was every bit as shrewd as a Borgia. He was involved in most political corruption scandals, was tried for mafia association and has also been accused of being involved in a variety of conspiracies related to high profile assassinations, massacres and banking crimes. In his 2008 film, Il Divo: La Straordinaria vita di Giulio Andreotti, director Paolo Sorrentino, highlighted the responsibility of Giulio Andreotti in the kidnapping of Aldo Moro, former prime minister and then president of Christian Democracy (Italy's relative majority party at the time). Sorrentino is not the only one to hold that suspicion. Many believe that Moro was the agnello sacrificale, the sacrificial lamb who had to be executed because of his efforts to include the Communist Party in a coalition government.

On 16 March 1978, Moro's car was assaulted by a group of Red Brigades terrorists in Rome. His corpse was later found in the trunk of a Renault 4 after 55 days of imprisonment.

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9 May 1978: Aldo Moro's body is found in via Caetani, Rome in the trunk of a Renault 4

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Moro, photographed during his kidnapping by the Red Brigades

Andreotti, Moro but also Andy Warhol, Federico Fellini and many others appear in Amore e Piombo: The Photography of extremes in 1970s Italy, one of the exhibitions of the Brighton Photo Biennial. Amore e Piombo means Love and Lead. Lead as in the anni di piombo, the tumultuous years of social conflict and acts of terrorism carried out by right- and left-wing paramilitary groups in the Italy of the 1970s. Now the Amore comes with the glamour of Cinecitta and the stars photographed by paparazzi in the streets of Rome. Two worlds poles apart that characterized Italy in the 70s and were documented by a group of photographers working for the agency Team Editorial Services.

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Specialist anti-riot police unit Cellere, 70s

The press photographers constantly shifted between battling film stars at play and the reality of near civil war unfolding on the streets. Politics and celebrity are brought together through the paparazzi style of alto contrasto, collusion and intrusion. Alluded to, although less visible, are the murkier dealings of clandestine groups linked to the Italian Secret Services, The P2 Masonic Lodge the CIA and NATO, operating against the backdrop of the extremes of the Red and Black Brigades. Archive prints are presented alongside television news footage, film sequences and sound recordings. A choice of Italian photo-books of the period, loaned from the Martin Parr collection, add a further layer of reference.

Amore e Piombo is an exhibition as fascinating and enigmatic as the years it portrays. Don't miss it if you're in or around Brighton:

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Demonstration against the Historic Compromise, alliance of the Christian Democracy (DC) and the Italian Communist party (PCI), Rome, 70s All photographs: Alinari Courtesy The Archive of Modern Conflict

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Giulio Andreotti in the early 70s during his first time as prime minister of Italy and leader of the Christian Democrats

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Actors Ninetto Davoli and Franco Citti with director Pier Paolo Pasolini (standing) in an actors' football team, 70s

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French actor Alain Delon on an Italian film set

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Clash between police and far-left protesters, Rome, 1977

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Avelar Brandão Vilela, Brazilian cardinal of the Roman Catholic church, 1970s

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Brigitte Bardot in Les Femmes, directed by Jean Aurel, Rome, 1969

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A police bodyguard lies dead after Red Brigades ambush and kidnap Aldo Moro, via Fani, Rome, 16 March 1978

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Pro-divorce demonstration in advance of the divorce referendum, 1974

Views of the exhibition space:

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The Guardian has more images.

Amore e Piombo: The Photography of extremes in 1970s Italy was co-commissioned by the Archive of Modern Conflict and Photoworks, curated by Roger Hargreaves and Federica Chiocchetti. It is open until 2 November at the Brighton Museum & Art Gallery.

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Bas Princen, Cooling plant, Dubai, 2009

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Iwan Baan, Torre David #2, 2011 (Caracas)

Yesterday was the press view of Constructing Worlds: Photography and Architecture in the Modern Age at the Barbican Art Gallery. I eagerly go to those journalist tours because i'm allowed to take photos to my heart's content. The day after it's often strictly verboten.

Constructing Worlds looks at how photographers have documented key moments in the history of 20th and 21st century architecture: the skyscrapers rising up in New York, the remains of an industrial Europe well past its glory days, the glamorous Californian lifestyle of the 1940s, the unstoppable urbanisation of China, the traces of colonization in Africa, the aftermath of the war on Afghanistan, India's enthusiasm for modernity as built in Chandigarh by Le Corbusier, etc.

I was particularly seduced by the photos from the 1930s to 1970s. Their authors looked for beauty and evidences of social changes where most people would have only registered dust and mortar.

Constructing Worlds exhibits the work of 18 photographers only. But that's good enough for me as i'm no fan of those Barbican shows that asphyxiate you by their discouragingly high amount of images and information. I'm therefore going to follow suit and keep my comments short.

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Ed Ruscha, 5000 W Carling Way, 1967/1999 (Los Angeles)

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Ed Ruscha, Dodgers Stadium, 1000 Elysian Park Ave., 1967/1999

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Constructing Worlds. Photography and Architecture in the Modern Age, Installation images at the Barbican Art Gallery. © Chris Jackson / Getty Images

Ed Ruscha's views of Thirty-four Parking Lots in Los Angeles were taken from a helicopter. The series followed his iconic "Every Building on the Sunset Strip". Probably my favourite room in the show.

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Berenice Abbott, Rockefeller Center, New York City, 1932. © Berenice Abbott, Courtesy of Ron Kurtz and Howard Greenberg Gallery, New York

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Berenice Abbott, Encampment of the unemployed, New York City, 1935

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Berenice Abbott, Blossom Restaurant, 103 Bowery, Manhattan, October 03, 1935

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Berenice Abbott, Triborough Bridge #3, Manhattan, 1937

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Berenice Abbott, Columbus Circle, 1936

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Berenice Abbott, Manhattan Skyline: I. South Street and Jones Lane from East River Pier 11, 1936

In 1929, Berenice Abbott traveled to New York City after having spent eight years in Europe. In her absence, countless 19th-century buildings had been razed to make way for skyscrapers. She decided to stay in the country and document the changing face of the city. By 1940, the photographer had completed "Changing New York," an invaluable historical testimony of a life in Manhattan that has disappeared.

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Walker Evans, Bethlehem graveyard and steel mill, Pennsylvania, November 1935

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Walker Evans, Billboards and Frame Houses, Atlanta, GA 1936

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Walker Evans, Waterfront in New Orleans, French Market Sidewalk Scene, Louisiana, 1935

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Walker Evans, Negro house, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1936

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Walker Evans, Frame Houses. New Orleans, Louisiana, 1936. © Walker Evans Archive, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Walker Evans is famous for the work he did for the Farm Security Administration documenting the effects of the Great Depression. I've seen these images several times before but i doubt i'll ever get tired of them. The photos were taken at the same time as Berenice Abbott's.

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Guy Tillim, Apartment Building, Avenue Bagamoyo, Beira, Mozambique, 2008

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Guy Tillim, Apartment Building, Beira, Mozambique, 2007

Guy Tillim's work examines modern history in Africa against the backdrop of its colonial and post-colonial architectural heritage.

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Stephen Shore, Second Street and South Main Street, Kalispell,, Montana, 1974

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Stephen Shore, Wigwam Motel, Holbrook, AZ, August 10, 1973

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Stephen Shore, Bellevue, Alberta, August 21, 1974

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Thomas Struth, Clinton Road, London, 1977

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Hiroshi Sugimoto, Chrysler Building (Architect: William van Alen), 1997

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Lucien Hervé-High Court of Justice, Chandigarh, 1955

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Constructing Worlds. Photography and Architecture in the Modern Age, Installation images at the Barbican Art Gallery. © Chris Jackson / Getty Images

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Constructing Worlds. Photography and Architecture in the Modern Age, Installation images at the Barbican Art Gallery. © Chris Jackson / Getty Images

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Constructing Worlds. Photography and Architecture in the Modern Age, Installation images at the Barbican Art Gallery. © Chris Jackson / Getty Images

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Constructing Worlds. Photography and Architecture in the Modern Age, Installation images at the Barbican Art Gallery. © Chris Jackson / Getty Images

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Constructing Worlds. Photography and Architecture in the Modern Age, Installation images at the Barbican Art Gallery. © Chris Jackson / Getty Images

The exhibition is curated by Alona Pardo and Elias Redstone and designed by architecture firm, Office KGDVS, led by Kersten Geers and David Van Severen.

Constructing Worlds: Photography and Architecture in the Modern Age is at the Barbican Art Gallery until 11 January 2015.

Previously: Guy Tillim: Avenue Patrice Lumumba and Burke + Norfolk: Photographs From The War In Afghanistan.

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Joan Fontcuberta and Pere Formiguera, Centaurus Neandertalensis from the Fauna series, 1987

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Joan Fontcuberta, Stranger Than Fiction. Photo by Kate Elliott

The Media Space at the London's Science Museum has recently opened a retrospective of photographer Joan Fontcuberta's work. The series on show explore constellations, geography, natural history and many more science-related topics. Each of the body of works exhibited would deserve its own blog post but i'm going to focus on the Fauna series because it brings to the attention of the broader public the long-lost archives of a German zoologist called Professor Peter Ameisenhaufen.

Fontcuberta discovered the archives by chance during a trip to Stockholm with his friend writer and photographer Pere Formiguera. Ameisenhaufen gained fame in the first half of the 20th century for his controversial research on rare animals. Many of his colleagues refused to believe these creatures were real but Ameisenhaufen spent decades collecting evidences of their existence. The archives uncovered in the late 1980s by Fontcuberta were surprisingly rich and well detailed: photos, field notes, dissections drawing, audio clips documenting the calls and other sounds of these truly exceptional animals. Several specimens were even remarkably preserved by taxidermy.

Here are a few examples of the creatures the professor discovered over the course of his career:

Alopex Stultus from the Fauna series by Joan Fontcuberta and Pere Formiguera, 1987 ∏ Joan Fontcuberta.jpg
Joan Fontcuberta and Pere Formiguera, Alopex Stultus from the Fauna series, 1987

Alopex Stultus- An herbivorous animal, completely inoffensive and very timid. When it senses the proximity of an enemy, it finds a shrub of the species Antrolepsis Reticulospinosus and digs a hole in the earth, into which it sticks its head, leaving the rest of the body suspended in a vertical posture in an attempt to mimic the shrub. Unfortunately, the outcome is not particularly satisfactory and both men and predators usually capture it at this point.

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Joan Fontcuberta and Pere Formiguera, Solenoglypha Polipodida, from the Fauna series

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Joan Fontcuberta and Pere Formiguera, X-ray Solenoglypha Polipodida from the Fauna series

Solenoglypha Polipodida- Extremely aggressive and venomous, it hunts for food and also for the pleasure of killing. It is quite rapid and moves forward in a curious and very rapid run, thanks to the strong musculature of its 12 paws and the supplementary impulse which it obtains by undulating all of its body in a strange aerial reptation. When facing its prey it becomes completely immobile and emits a very sharp whistle which paralyzes its enemy. It maintains this immobility for as long as the predator needs to secrete the gastric juices required to digest its prey, which can vary between two minutes and three hours, as determined by the size of the victim. At the end of the whistling phase, Solenoglypha launches itself rapidly at its immobile prey and bites the nape of its neck, causing instantaneous death.

Cercophitecus Icarocornu from the Fauna series by Joan Fontcuberta and Pere Formiguera, 1987 ∏ Joan Fontcuberta and Pere Formiguera.jpg
Joan Fontcuberta and Pere Formiguera, Cercophitecus Icarocornu from the Fauna series

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Joan Fontcuberta and Pere Formiguera, Cercophitecus Icarocornu from the Fauna series

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Joan Fontcuberta and Pere Formiguera, Cercophitecus Icarocornu 2, 1987, from the series Fauna

Cercopithecus Icarocornu- the sacred animal of the indigenous Nygala-Tebo tribes, for whom it represents the reincarnation of Ahzran (he who came from heaven). The females give birth inside a large cabin in the village to which only the great shaman has access. The baby animals remain inside the cabin until they have completely developed their ability to fly, at which point the tribe celebrates a lavish ceremony during which Cercopithecus undergoes an operation in which it is grafted with the skin of the silver fish of the Amazon, which covers all of the pectoral and abdominal zone. Once this has been done, the animal is set free, although it never strays very far away from the village, and participates by its presence in all of the sacred festivals of the NygalaTebo. During these festivals the animal is given a spirituous beverage which it drinks eagerly, sinking into a state of complete inebriety, at which point it begins to flap its wings so madly that it hovers in mid-air with its body immobile, singing like one possessed.

Of course none of these animals have ever existed and i knew of the hoax before i entered the show. Yet, i wasn't sure. Fontcuberta is such a master in deception and seduction that i needed to remind myself that this wasn't 'documentation'.

In fact, when Fauna was shown at the Barcelona Museum of Natural Science in 1989, 30% of university-educated visitors aged 20 to 30 believed some of the imaginary animals Fontcuberta devised could have existed.

I didn't know at the time what Fontcuberta looked like, otherwise i might have detected that Hans von Kubert, the assistant of Professor Ameisenhaufen bears an uncanny resemblance to Fontcuberta himself:

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Joan Fontcuberta, from the Fauna series

More evidences of the existence of the creatures, i just can't resist:

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Joan Fontcuberta and Pere Formiguera, Myodorifera Colubercauda from the Fauna series,1985-1989

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Joan Fontcuberta and Pere Formiguera, Myodorifera Colubercauda from the Fauna series,1985-1989

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Transplant Operation, from the Fauna series (photo via)

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From the Fauna series

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Joan Fontcuberta and Pere Formiguera, Centaurus Neandertalensis from the Fauna series, 1987

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Skeleton of Felis Pennatus, 1989

Joan Fontcuberta grew up in Spain under the dictatorship of General Franco, at a time when propaganda shaped what people should believe and trust. Like many other members of his family, Fontcuberta worked in advertising until the late Seventies, when he decided to learn photography by himself and investigate how the medium constructs truth and untruth.

The other photo series shown in the exhibition Stranger than Fiction are as amusing and deluding as Fauna. The show closes on the hilarious Miracles & Co series which shows Fontcuberta in the guise of a monk living in a Finnish monastery school specialized in teaching how to perform all kinds of wonders. By the time i exited the show, there really remained no doubt in me that photography shouldn't be trusted unreservedly.

"Photography is a tool to negotiate our idea of reality. Thus it is the responsibility of photographers to not contribute with anaesthetic images but rather to provide images that shake consciousness."
- Joan Fontcuberta

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Joan Fontcuberta, The Miracle of Feminity, 2002

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Joan Fontcuberta, The Miracle of Dolphin-Surfing, 2002

The Miracle of Levitation, 2002, Joan Fontcuberta ∏ Joan Fontcuberta.jpg
Joan Fontcuberta, The Miracle of Levitation, 2002

Views of the exhibition space:

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Joan Fontcuberta, Stranger Than Fiction. Photo by Kate Elliott

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Joan Fontcuberta, Stranger Than Fiction. Photo by Kate Elliott

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Joan Fontcuberta, Stranger Than Fiction. Photo by Kate Elliott

Stranger than Fiction is at Media Space Gallery, the Science Museum in London until 9 November 2014.

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Vincent Debanne, Battleship

On his return from Africa in 46 BC, Julius Caesar organised a naumachia, a staged sea battle on a water-filled basin by the river Tiber. For this water extravaganza, ships of two to four banks of oars representing historical fleets were set afloat. On board were thousands of combatants and rowers, prisoners of war or condemned to death who had to fight and reenact famous battles. All for the joy of the Roman people. Caesar's naumachia was the first documented one. Other, even more grandiose ones would be later organised by emperors in amphitheatres.

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A naumachia held at the Colosseum. Illustration by G. Nispi-Landi, 1913 (image)

In his Battleship photo series, Vincent Debanne transposed this kind of flamboyant spectacle to our days of growing wealth inequality.

The artist sets the scene in well-known playgrounds for luxury yachts: the bays of Antibes and of St-Tropez in France. Using image manipulation, Debanne turns these recreational vessels into formidable warships. The photo series also provides a surprisingly realistic commentary on some of our world's current economic, social and political issues.

I discovered the work of Vincent Debanne at the festival PhotoIreland in Dublin a few weeks ago and i recently contacted him to know more about his work. The artist answered me in french. I translated his text into english but if you scroll down, you'll find his answers in the original language as well:

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Vincent Debanne, Battleship

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Vincent Debanne, Battleship

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Vincent Debanne, Battleship

Hi Vincent! I think what i found most remarkable about the photos (apart from the fact that they are stunning) is that they are completely credible. It took me a while to realize that they were not documenting any actual sea battle. These namachiae look completely logical, that's what the super rich would do to have fun between two parties, i imagine. But as far as i can understand, all your photo series are based on real social or political concerns. So what did you want to communicate with the series?

With the Battleship series, I want to evoke the display of power performed by the super rich in the exclusive centers of world yachting. The Bay of Saint-Tropez remains an important destination for this activity. I think that this display of luxury is made for two audiences: for the poor, as a show, a triumph, as they would have called it in Rome, but mostly for the rich themselves, the game is one that will require the biggest yacht, the longest length to affirm your status, communicate your high rank to other rich people.

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Vincent Debanne, Battleship

What does the use of photomontage allow you to express that could not be conveyed through pure documentation or scene setting?

I show this gathering of yachts as a naval battle, because that's what it is, a balance of power, a fight. Photomontage gives me the opportunity to reveal, to exaggerate this underlying violence, the violence of economic war. These boats, with their aggressive design, their evocative names (unless they have female names), each of them bearing the flag of offshore havens, are already very impressive, but the photomontage makes their warrior appearance even more obvious, and emphasizes their kinship with the military. Furthermore, the world's largest yacht builder, which is German, also manufactures warships. Some of these yachts are armed with defense systems to fight against piracy. Photomontage makes it all visible!

What was the creative process for Battleship? What did you start with? just a few yacht meeting on the surface of the sea and then you add some explosion effect? How do you construct the photos from there?

The series is done in three stages. First, the shots of yachts on the water and then the photographs of the rear of the yachts moored in the port of Saint-Tropez and Antibes, in order to collect warriors names (a very short type), an image of the port of Antibes (a fortified harbor that shelters the largest yachts in the world), and finally the post-production, special effects, additions of explosions, smoke, etc.

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Vincent Debanne, Battleship

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Vincent Debanne, Battleship

The scenes in many of your photo series appear uncannily real, but have there's something about them that makes us question reality itself. Is this something you are conscious of? And how do you manage that?

Yes, my photo series always play with realism: the documentary side of my images is essential. It has to be plausible at first sight. That's because my work is not fanciful but seeks to interrogate reality, often in a sociological and political perspective. It engages in a dialectical relationship with reality.

Some of your photos series are inspired by paintings. this seems to be the case with Battleship as well. Is it painting in general that inspired you or were you trying to evoke the style of a particular painter or genre?

I like to rely on painting. Rather than a painter in particular, it's the genre that interests me, with the archetypes it comprehends. These archetypal images help me show archaisms that are still very active nowadays. I proceed by exaggeration and the pastiche is one of its components. It is true that the marine is a theme that is seldom approached in photography, the major example of it remains Gustave Le Gray.

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Battleship Journal. Design by Lucie Lecomte and Vincent Debanne

Why did you chose to edit the photos in a journal? instead of a book for example?

I chose the form of a self-published newspaper, remembering how newspapers from the XIXth century used printmaking to relate naval battles. With designer Lucie Lecomte, we chose to leave more room for the image, with double-pages and the journal format that opens up flat. The newspaper remains an effective and inexpensive political medium. It can be distributed!

Thanks Vincent!

French version of Vincent Debanne's answers:

I think what i found most remarkable about the photos (apart from the fact that they are stunning) is that they are completely credible. It took me a while to realize that they were not documenting any actual sea battle. These namachiae look completely logical, that's what the super rich would do to have fun between two parties, i imagine. But as far as i can understand, all your photo series are based on real social or political concerns. So what did you want to communicate with the series?

Avec la série Battleship, je veux évoquer la démonstration de force donnée par les très riches dans les lieux privilégiés du yachting mondial. La baie de Saint-Tropez reste une destination importante pour cette activité. Pour moi cet étalage de luxe est effectué pour deux publics : pour les pauvres, comme un spectacle, un triomphe, on aurait dit à Rome, mais surtout pour les riches eux-mêmes, le jeu est à celui qui s'imposera par le plus gros yacht, le plus long métrage, pour affirmer son statut, communiquer son rang aux autres riches.

What does the use of photomontage allow you to express that could not be conveyed through pure documentation or scene setting?

Je montre ce rassemblement de yachts comme une bataille navale, car c'est ce qu'il est, un rapport de forces, un combat. Le photomontage me donne la possibilité de révéler, d'exagérer cette violence sous-jacente, celle de la guerre économique. Ces bateaux, avec leur design agressif, leurs noms si évocateurs (quand il ne s'agit pas de noms de femmes), tous sous des pavillons de paradis Offshore, sont déjà très impressionnants, mais le photomontage rend leur aspect guerrier plus évident, et souligne leur parenté avec le militaire. D'ailleurs le plus grand constructeur mondial de yacht, qui est allemand, fabrique également des navires de guerre. Et certains de ces yachts sont armés de systèmes de défense, pour lutter contre la piraterie. Le photomontage fait que tout cela devient visible !

What was the creative process for Battleship? What did you start with? just a few yacht meeting on the surface of the sea and then you add some explosion effect? How do you construct the photos from there?

La série est réalisée en trois temps, d'abord les prises de vues des yachts sur la mer, puis des photographies de l'arrière des yachts amarrés au port de Saint-Tropez et d'Antibes, pour collecter des noms guerriers (une très courte typologie), une image du port d'Antibes (port fortifié abritant les plus grands yachts du monde), et enfin la post-production, les effets spéciaux, additions d'explosions, fumées etc.

The scenes in many of your photo series appear uncannily real, but have there's something about them that makes us question reality itself. Is this something you are conscious of? And how do you manage that?

Oui, il y a toujours un jeu dans mes séries photographiques avec le réalisme : la part documentaire de mes images est essentielle. Il faut que cela soit plausible au premier abord. Car mon travail n'est pas fantaisiste mais cherche à questionner la réalité, souvent sous un angle sociologique et politique. Il engage un rapport dialectique avec le réel.

Some of your photos series are inspired by paintings. this seems to be the case with Battleship as well. Is it painting in general that inspired you or were you trying to evoke the style of a particular painter or genre?

J'aime m'appuyer sur la peinture : plus qu'un peintre en particulier, c'est effectivement le genre qui m'intéresse avec les archétypes qu'il comporte. Ces images archétypales me sont utiles pour montrer les archaïsmes encore très actifs dans notre époque contemporaine. Je procède par exagération et le pastiche en est une des composantes. Il est vrai que les marines sont un thème peu traité en photographie, l'exemple majeur restant Gustave Le Gray.

Why did you chose to edit the photos in a journal? instead of a book for example?

J'ai choisi la forme du journal, autoédité, en me rappelant les journaux du XIX eme siècle qui relataient les batailles navales en gravure. Avec la graphiste Lucie Lecomte, nous avons choisi de laisser la plus grande place à l'image, sur des doubles pages et le format du journal permet d'ouvrir bien à plat. Le journal reste un médium politique efficace et peu cher. Il peut être distribué !!!

Merci Vincent!

Also at the festival Photo Ireland: Anecdotal radiations, the stories surrounding nuclear armament and testing programs.

In our collective unconscious the atom bomb is synonymous with Hiroshima and Nagasaki. But since 1945 it has been documented that more than 2079 nuclear bombs have been detonated on Earth. Since the end of the Second World War, nuclear power countries have methodically bombed their own lands. Self mutilation in the name of self defense.

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David Farhi, Anecdotal radiations

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Copa Room showgirl Lee Merlin poses in a cotton mushroom cloud swimsuit as she is crowned "Miss Atomic Bomb 1957." Photo Credit: Don English/ Las Vegas News Bureau/Las Vegas Sun

Anecdotal Radiations is a series that uncovers the unknown, forgotten and often very strange stories surrounding nuclear armament and testing programs. A couple of the anecdotes are well-known such as the Miss Atomic Bomb pageant or the story of the bikini. Others are downright baffling: the chicken vaporized when a nuclear bomb is dropped by mistake, the taste of a beer after a nuclear explosion, the ultra secret activation code on all American nuclear weapons set to "00000000", etc.

David Fathi has collected archive photos, satellite imagery, packshots and road-trip photos. By adding his own images to the archive documents, the photographer orchestrates a series of baffling, yet true, stories that illustrate the discrepancies that exist between the world we have created and the world we believe we live in.

I discovered the series last month at the festival Photo Ireland and the more i read about these anecdotes on Fathi's website, the more i thought i should get in touch with him and interview him:

Hi David! What inspired you to have a look at some of the 'unfamiliar stories and anecdotes' about nuclear bombing and experiments?

I believe my fascination started a couple of years back with one image.

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Nuclear explosion photographed less than one millisecond after detonation. From the Tumbler-Snapper test series in Nevada, 1952, showing fireball and "rope trick" effects. The fireball is about 20 meters in diameter in this shot

This is the photo of a nuclear explosion, just a couple of milliseconds after its detonation. At the time, nothing could capture such images, and scientists had to design an entirely new high-speed camera. I was mesmerized by this photo, as it is a scientific document of something terrifying but seems so abstract and beautiful.

We normally have this very clear image of the atomic bomb as a mushroom cloud, and here we have a photo that completely changes our perception of it, by showing its origin.
I wanted to find a way to talk about this image in a project some day, but hadn't found the right approach yet.

Last year I finally started researching nuclear testing, and it was like going down the rabbit hole. I knew, just like everybody else, that nuclear testing happened during the cold war. But I had never really stopped to think about what that meant. When I thought about the bomb, Hiroshima and Nagasaki is what came to mind, even though since then, more than two thousand bombs have detonated on earth.

The more I researched, the weirder it got. When trying to deal with the gap between weapons of unfathomable power and the human stories of the men who try to master them it becomes absurd, terrifying and darkly funny.

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David Farhi, Anecdotal radiations

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David Farhi, Anecdotal radiations

The series mixes archival photos, satellite imagery, packshots and road-trip photos. How do you combine them? do you start with archive material and then add your own images to fill some gaps, for example?

I start with an anecdote. After enough research, I find this small story that is totally true, but seems unreal. It becomes one of the building blocks around which I start gathering photos.

Then I list the typologies of photos I want to use (satellite imagery, archives, packshots, roadtrip) and try to find how I can illustrate in a literal fashion the story. Once I have gathered enough material, it seems very factual and straightforward. That's when I try to break it up, and find images that are more metaphorical and only tangentially related to the story.

The aim is to create a documentary based on facts, but the result seems like fiction. So it's all about finding a balance between precise documentation and playful deconstruction.

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David Farhi, Anecdotal radiations

Some of the experiments you selected for the series seem to have been conceived by brazen, unconscious minds. There are also accidental releases of nuclear bombs too. Do you you think the military is more cautious nowadays or are there still some dangerous experiments taking place? How much do you think is still hidden from us?

I'm close to finishing my project, and I'm trying to find a couple of stories that are more recent, so that people remember that nuclear weapons are not just a thing of the past and more probably something we will have to continue dealing with for centuries to come.
So here are a couple of things that we learned recently about the United States nuclear program:

- In August 2007, six nuclear warheads were loaded by mistake on a military plane. When it landed, nobody knew the devices were on board. The plane was left unguarded on the tarmac for 36 hours before people realized what was happening.

- In September 2013, the n°2 officer in charge of Nuclear Command was fired for gambling with counterfeit poker chips.

- In December 2013, one of the top generals in command of nuclear armament was fired for an incident in Moscow where he was seen with Russian escort girls drunkenly boasting about what he was in charge of.

- In March 2014, 82 nuclear launch officers were implicated in a cheating scandal on their security exams.

These are just stories uncovered by the press in the USA, as Russian, Chinese, French, British, Israeli, etc. Nuclear programs are very tightly kept under wraps. It's nearly impossible to get relevant data about those.

With all of this in mind, I find it hard to understand how nuclear armament is not more prominent in the news.

Could you pick up some of the images you selected from archives or made yourself and comment what they are about? Explaining why you chose them from archives or why and how you made them? (i started selecting the photos that intrigued me the most but i ended up with so many of them i decided i'd let you chose instead)

This photo is an actual press archive of Spanish minister for information and tourism Manuel Fraga Iribarne and US ambassador Angier Biddle Duke swimming near Palomares, Spain, after the crash of a B-52 bomber and the loss of four nuclear warheads. All to assure the local population that everything is safe and under control.
The manipulation on top of Fraga is a superposition of the satellite image of a nuclear crater.

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David Farhi, Anecdotal radiations

Speaking of satellite imagery, I printed out photos of nuclear impacts. I then created these sculptures for two reasons. Firstly they seem like rocks & minerals, alluding to the melted rocks you can actually find on sites where nuclear bombs were tested. And secondly to give these images a 3D existence. All these "scars" are visible just by going on Google Earth, but we still don't really know they exist, so maybe by giving them this three-dimensional quality they can appear as more "real".

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David Farhi, Anecdotal radiations

This photo was taken on the road between Nevada and California. There have been some lawsuits around these regions by communities who claim having been exposed "downwind" from the Nevada Test Site. I took quite a few photos along this path, looking for semi-fictional traces of these stories.

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David Farhi, Anecdotal radiations

This is a screenshot from the documentary Atomic Café, a great source of information that everybody should watch. The movie has an incredible wealth of obscure archival films of the cold war era. This particular clip is still amazing to me, as I have found no clue to where it came from. It's part of a long list of absurdities you stumble upon when doing research on the subject (like Nuclear War card games, Miss Atom Bomb beauty pageants, etc)

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David Farhi, Anecdotal radiations

What were your objectives in publishing this series of photos. Was it purely informative and anecdotical or is there a more socially engaged or political motivation behind the series?

My interest in this subject is mainly psychological. The politics of nuclear armament seem pretty easy. Even people in charge of such programs do not see nuclear bombs as a good thing. So how do we deal intellectually with their continuing existence?

There is a huge dissonance between the world we imagine we live in and the one we actually live in. The over-the-top consequences of nuclear bombs are so immense that we naturally shut it out of our minds. My objective is not to say nuclear bombs are bad (that is quite a boring statement and everybody agrees), but more to force people to question everything, entities of power as much as their own selves.

Governments and media have of course their role in keeping out of reach the implications of nuclear weapons, but we as individuals have as much a responsibility in comprehending history, science and human knowledge. In telling these small anecdotes, I try and use humor, terror, and a general playfulness to try to suck in the viewer, and get him or her to question what they think they know.

I hope this series is more about confronting our own way of perceiving the world, and how to think critically of the consequences of our decisions.

In fact the best thing for me would be if people would even call into question my own photos and stories. I'm telling you all this is true, but you'd be better off by doubting and starting your own investigation.

Thanks David!

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