Sorry i've been a bit slow coming up with the last chapter of Estación experimental [Experimental Station]. Opened a few weeks ago at Laboral Art and Industrial Creation Centre, the exhibition looks at the way artists are inspired by scientific research.
The Lost in Space section of the exhibition explores the outer space, that part of the universe that excites the imagination of scientists and artists alike. Because of its high percentage of science fiction, enigma and political undertones, that was the part of the show i liked the best.
Kiluanji Kia Henda's project Icarus13 documents with photos, a model and a text the preparation for the first ever expedition to the sun led by the Angola government. The photos of the space station buildings and astronomy center are pretty impressive:
Only bummer is that everything about the Angolan sun mission is fiction and irony. The technical experts we see getting the Icarus 13 machinery ready for take off are in fact construction workers in Luanda that the artist photographed during raids work. And most of the buildings that look so perfect for a space mission are in fact vestiges from Angola's colonial history: Icarus 13 is an unfinished mausoleum left by the Russians in Angola. "The Centre for Astronomy" is a cinema that decolonization left unfinished. The images showing the lights on the departure of the ship were taken during the celebrations of the trip Angolan Black Antelopes' to the World Cup 2006, etc.
The name of the mission himself, Icarus 13, dooms any enterprise of the kind to failure: Icarus was after all that young man who, in Greek mythology, fell to his death while flying too close to the sun.
Maybe Jan Tichy's mysterious astronomic observatory is also planning an outer space trip.
Installation No. 4 (Towers) is part video, part architecture where light and darkness very slowly move over the models as if they were submitted to the rotation of the planets. However no one knows whether the buildings really belong to an astronomic observatory, or what the source of the light is. In fact, i suspect their purpose is a dark and disquieting one. What are these towers controlling, communicating or monitoring? We watch the whole subtle and slow transition from light to darkness, punctuated by clouds with troubling shades but we are nowhere near understanding what what is at stake in the work.
In his work, Tichy has often explored architecture and its political impact. This installation evokes a power that we see at work but have no means of stopping or influencing.
Lyn Hagan is the only artist in the show who physically engaged with space, more precisely with zero gravity. She took a cat and a mouse with her at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre in Moscow and filmed the way the animals experienced 10 parabolas of weightless (23 seconds each of zero gravity). The aim of the artist was to confirm whether the feline instinct remains in the absence of gravity. The slow motion film shows that the cat is too busy swinging around to pursue its prey. According to the catalogue (which you can download in PDF form), Hagan is currently working on the possibility of producing and filming a choreography that would be carried out by a robot on the surface of Mars.
Paloma Polo's The Path of Totality is a slide show of images of the bizarre eclipse observatories built from the mid-19th to the early 20th century in the USA, France, Germany and Italy, countries that invested in astrophysical research.
The catalogue grew through the artist's exchange with experts in astrophysics, who guided her search through libraries and archives at observatories and astronomical institutes.
The structures are precarious, erected in places strategically chosen for optimum observation of the phenomenon. Their only aim was to provide the best possible shelter for the instruments to study the astrophysical phenomenon.
The resulting catalogued archive of specific structures reflects the race for political and economic power by the countries that were vying against each other to prove their progress - also in the field of scientific research. All of them had extensive colonial territories spread throughout the planet, although, curiously, Spain was left out because, like Portugal, it had already fallen behind.
But Polo actually uses these images to lead us into the slippery subject of science instrumentalised by power, a recurring debate throughout history that repeatedly crops up in both art and science.
Image on the homepage: Lyn Hagan, Cat in zero gravity, 2008.
Back from a quick visit to the Royal College of Art Summer Show in London. I stayed 3 hours there and only managed to speak to 5 students, that's how ridiculously inefficient i am.
Because they spend most of their time in an artificially lit environment, city dwellers have long stopped paying attention to those natural night lights coming from billions of light years away: the stars.
With his project Urban Stargazing, Oscar Lhermitte attempts to have us raise our head again up to the stars in the city sky by adding new constellations that narrate contemporary myths about London. Twelve groups of stars have been designed and installed guerrilla-style at different locations in the city. They can only be observed by the naked eye at night time and from the ground they look so uncannily like the old constellations that you might never notice that any change has occurred. Each of these new constellations have a story that is directly relevant to the Londoner.
Take the V2 for example. This constellation refers to the bombing of London during the Second World War. During 'the Blitz', V-2 rockets were hitting London over a period of several months, destroying over a million of houses and killing around 20,000 civilians. Bethnal Green tube station was used as an air-raid shelter but on 3rd March 1943, after a false alert, 172 people died of suffocation while rushing into the shelter. The V2 constellation now shines above Bethnal Green.
Lhermitte told me the fascinating story behind the Mosquito constellation. It has recently been discovered that the London underground houses its own peculiar species of mosquito. Apparently, they mutated from the bird-biting form that colonised the underground when it was built in the last century to a variety that nips rats, mice and maintenance workers. Underground mosquitoes are reluctant to mate with their outdoor cousins, indicating that they have become a separate species -- a process that normally takes thousands of years rather than decades. These underground mosquitoes naturally deserved to get their own constellation.
Each constellation is a triangulated structure made out of clear ø 0.6mm nylon line, ø 0.2mm polyethylene braid, ø 0.75mm fibre optic and a solar powered LED. During the day, the battery is being recharged by the solar panel and the circuit switches ON the LED when it is dark enough to observe stars.
Check out the google maps that points to each constellation with their corresponding coordinates.
Just back from London where i managed to catch up with up to 7 exhibitions in a day and try out a bottle of baffling dandelion and burdock syrup. The most magnificent moments of my stay in town were spent in the dark rooms of the Serpentine watching Parreno's videos. The feast closes next week: run, readers, run to Kensington Gardens if you haven't seen the show yet.
As the artist stated: "As with all my series, the leading argument is the variation on portrait. I had the sensation that I could try to either make portraits of mankind, or of individuals. I liked the idea of having a connection between the individual and space, (in this case the prominent figure of Galileo), and with suits in a more abstract sense, as you can only imagine a human figure in the astronaut suit, but you cannot see it. It is anonymous.
I think the astronaut suit is a metaphor for human beings. Through them I am able in a visual and simple way to show that I believe we are all astronauts. We are all alone, we are isolated from each other. And we are all trying by verbal and non-verbal communication to get in contact with each other. To not feel alone. Each individual is a space with its own rules, materials, history and relations to the space outside of itself."
I spent a few minutes watching the multi-paneled works, trying to catch a glimpse of the men hidden behind it until i read the press release and realized that the suits were empty.
Matthias Schaller - Disportraits runs at Ben Brown Fine Arts in London until March 4, 2011.
Despite many a primary school drawing or text book illustration, a true scale model of our Solar System is unfeasible on paper.
Over the Summer, Louise O'Connor gave Londoners a chance to walk the Solar System and get a sense of its true vastness.
A walkable scale model has been installed along the road which begins at Kingsland Road in Dalston and finishes in Stamford Hill. During last Summer, local shopkeepers at appropriate points on the route have been acting as guardians to the planets - hosting models represented by everyday objects, at their correct sizes on this 3.1 km scale.
Passersby were invited to enter the shops and ask "the planetary guardians" to be shown the planet.
Although her project challenges school books representation of the solar system, Louise didn't have the heart to deprive Pluto from its planet prestige. "Pluto was actually demoted from planet status along in 2006 and is now classified as a dwarf or minor planet along with Eris and Ceres," Louise told me. "However, after growing up with Pluto as a planet, the model just didn't seem right without it..."
How did you get interested in the solar system and its physical representation at a more human scale?
Louise: Much of current design practice increasingly contains speculations borne from more and more complex and abstracted scientific developments, and fascinating as they are, (and I sincerely mean that!) I wondered whether, against this complex background, we can truly comprehend even the 'simple' things? And recognize that these 'simple' things can be truly wonderful and inspiring in themselves.
So in terms of the Solar System, the simplicity and almost prosaic nature of it as a concept, coupled with a typical lack of true conceivability of the scale in physical form, made it a good candidate and a very evocative thing to connect to and experience physically.
Personally, I remember particularly my own primary school solar system project, drawing similar 'scales' as I mentioned before in class, and then later that day, looking at the sunset in my grandma's garden, trying to imagine this thing called 'space', with such a massive sense of awe, which I haven't forgotten!
In terms of my wider practice, I am interested in how physical experience, and re - presentation (of both the 'everyday' and intangible concepts) can be used as playful tools for debate, engagement and shifting perspectives, as well as 'human' and hence absurd yet genuine ways in which we can attempt to connect to natural phenomena outside our physical experience.
And so over the course of the year, as a project, this has included many investigations into ways we may experience a variety of fascinating phenomena from different scales more physically and intuitively; incorporating singing, listening, animating, wearing, and of course dancing, and so this particular outcome came also as a natural development from these.
Why did you decide that the solar system walk would follow a straight line? Why not distribute the planets over a non-linear walk that would reflect the fact that some planet are on the east of others, etc. not sure if my question makes sense though...
Louise: Yes that definitely makes sense and is a good question!
Well, there were a few of reasons:
Firstly, despite the fact that the planets very rarely all truly align, the diagrams we typically draw as children or see around us predominantly show this image, so I wanted to reference that, and expand it into reality. It also demonstrates how even at their closest - if they were aligned - just how very far apart they still are, so of course usually they are much further!
Secondly, on a practical and experiential level, I felt it would be more fluid to connect and feel the distances through a straight (ish) line, as in, if people had to navigate around blocks etc, they might get lost, or take longer routes than needed. Similarly, my choice of using everyday objects rather than abstract spherical models came from similar reasoning - that it would be a more graspable idea if it were based on a size we already roughly know.
Lastly, I really like the idea of these historic routes of transit in the City, and repurposing them for my own absurd ends! The road this walk takes place on is part of what was Ermine Street or Earninga Straete (in 1012), one of Britain's major Roman Roads, going from London to York.
Saying that though I have been thinking about future scale walks (for other 'un-draw-able on paper 'scales) and I think that they certainly wouldn't have to always be in a line, perhaps the planets orbiting and moving location will be my next step!
Walk the Solar System is part of the Psychomythic Nature Quest series which aims at finding ways of representing and physically experiencing scientific knowledge and in particular the most unimaginable aspects of the natural world.
Interaction designer Nelly Ben Hayoun (whose works, Super K Sonic Booooum and The Soyuz Chair, you might remember) and geography researcher Dr Alison J Williams teamed up for Airspace Activism, a project that investigates the geographies of UK military airspaces which are used by air forces to train and prepare for combat situations.
One of the outcomes of Nelly and Alison's collaboration is the Theatre of the Air. A video using interviews with military pilots and navigators to understand how they perceive the geometries of the spaces through which they fly.
These airspaces exist in 3D volumes of space that can be activated and deactivated at different times. However, aviators only have two-dimensional air charts to 'see' these spaces, so they have to translate these mappings into three dimensions in their minds in order to be able to safely fly through them.
In order to make these invisible airspaces visible, Nelly and Dr. Williams worked on another project which will be the focus of this post. It's a 4 meters high windfarm that civilians could use to create radar white noise and prevent aircraft flying overhead, therefore reclaiming their piece of sky. An "audio-locator" --which a size is far more manageable that the acoustic locators used during the war before the invention of radar-- warns the user of any incoming aircraft and so that he or she has time to set the wind farm in motion.
The wind mill was exhibited this week in London and will be up again in another exhibition, in Newcastle this time, from 28th June until 7th July.
Can you tell me something about the location of your pieces? One is in London and the other in Newcastle? The London one doesn't seem to be a typical white space gallery though. Who chose the locations and why?
Nelly: A few words about the project itself, which I think will make sense with the location where it is presented in a disused WWII air raid shelter in Dalston for London and in an art space at the Exlibris Gallery, Newcastle University, in Newcastle.
This project seeks to make the invisible airspace visible. It achieves this through the construction of a vertical object that empowers us to take back control of these spaces reserved for military purposes.
During the early years of aviation aircraft flew at a relatively low altitude. However, laws existed that gave land-owners ownership of the entirety of the vertical space above the footprint of their house, including the air. This led to a myriad of problems for aviators and landowners who became locked in battle over payment for access to these spaces.
More recently, wind farms have become a contentious issue. Environmentalists either protest their building in areas of natural beauty, or cry out for their erection to reduce our dependence of fossil fuels and nuclear power. The military dislikes wind farms because they create no fly-zones in the sky, because of their production of radar white noise, which prevents aircraft flying over them.
This project synthesises these ideas, proposing an activism approach the focuses upon the idea of being able to generate and enact your own airspace though the deployment of a personalised wind farm. This creates a form of mechanical imperialism, through enabling control of an individual airspace.
The project is composed of a wind farm to use on your rooftop, and an audio locator that amplifies the sound of an aircraft engine. This enables the wind farm owner to hear an aircraft at distance and erect the wind farm in time to prevent the aircraft flying overhead.
A few weeks ago, while I was already working with Dr Alison J Williams on completing the design pieces for the Interventions exhibition in the The Exlibris Gallery in Newcastle, I was contacted by Space In Between, an arts-based collective operating in London. Space In Between was created in 2009 by the three young and very dynamic curators/artists Hannah Hooks, Laura MacFarlane and Ida Champion, who enjoy challenging emerging artists and designers by asking them to exhibit in unusual spaces such as this WWII air raid shelter bunker. This was really an opportunity not to be missed! Spaces such as this one really bring sense to the work and inform it as well with history and context.
It seems to me, that design is more than simply objects and should be embedded in an experience, something that will last in your memory like when you see a painting and you remember the tone of it. Those kinds of exhibition spaces really help to achieve that. They are performative by themselves, and prepare the audience to get into the experiences.
The pieces are now on their way to Newcastle University as part of the Interventions project, a project set by Joe Malia and Dr. Mónica Moreno Figueroa at Newcastle University's Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. This project and exhibition pairs 6 designers with 6 social scientists from Newcastle University to come up with provocative, speculative and creative overlap between social and cultural research and design.
How did you come to collaborate with Dr Alison J Williams?
Nelly: We met though the Interventions project, over 8 weeks, we began our collaboration by Alison sharing her research with me, sending her written work and transcripts of interviews with military pilots and navigators. From this I identified several key elements that could inspire a design proposal. We discussed them and over the course of two days developed ideas to take forward.
I was really lucky in meeting Alison through this project, her research stimulated my existing interest in airspace and in designing for the invisible. I was fascinated by the vocabulary she uses and how imaginative it can be. She talks about how ' The aircraft ENACTS the air' , developing its own performance. How the aircraft is an 'assemblage', she explains about those 'hidden geographies' those ' vertical geopolitics' , how pilots ' book' their piece of air, what does 'flying in theater' means, 'volumes of airspace', the 'aerial sovereignty' of the aircraft... the airspace with Alison is a 'lived spatiality', 'a craft network'. So, yes, you can imagine my excitement when reading and meeting her in Newcastle!
Do these geographies of military airspaces have any impact on the life of ordinary people like us? Could my ryanair flight from Turin to Brussels pass through them? Are they located above cities for example?
Dr Alison J Williams: The geographies of UK military airspaces do have an impact on the general public in many ways, through low flying and through flying though airspaces that other airspace users also want to use. This only really affects the private pilot community however. UK airspace is segregated so there are civil airspaces which commercial aircraft use to travel from airport A to airport B. These are like aerial motorways that link airports, and are usually known as air lanes. There are other airspaces that are used by both private pilots and the military. These are found in rural areas of the UK, in Wales, North Yorkshire, East Anglia, North Scotland, Northern England, Cornwall. You can get more detailed information on these spaces from the website of the Civil Aviation Authority. All this information is in the public domain. The military trains in these spaces. In some of these areas segregated airspaces exist. These are usually called danger areas and are where the military can train but private pilots and commercial aircraft are not allowed to enter without authorisation. These are usually over military ranges or training facilities.
Your flight from Turin to Brussels would not be affected by UK military airspace as you wouldn't be flying through UK airspace. In any case UK airspace operates a system that keeps civil, private, and military aircraft separated. Civil aircraft would not fly through UK military airspace that is being used.
Nelly: The airspace is such a complex, regimented space. It's made of corridors of different heights. Each force has some piece of air reserved that they book for the day. Military aircraft are guided with different frequencies than touristic aircraft.
All of this is controlled so nobody crashes into each other. Somehow the visualization I have of it is like a swan lake choreography!
They don't have a clear impact on our daily life, except if you are a pilot, we all have a passive access to these airspaces, which I think is really unfair! We aren't able to perform in it. My practice is a lot about giving access to amateurs to expert domains. That's really what is the project about, making this invisible, inaccessible air Active to us, making it real and physical in our daily life.
I'm sure my question will seem very naive but why is 'radar white noise' a problem for these planes?
Nelly: When you are 'flying' a plane you received radio signal from radar to tell you your strict position that stop you from messing up with others people's pieces of air ( usually military forces such as navy) and give you an indication on your height in the air. When windfarm create those microwave radiation they stop radars (positioned usually on earth) to deliver those data, they create white noise in their radar which become then NO_FLIGHT zone for the pilots.
Alison: Radar white noise is a problem because it in essence blinds the radar in the aircraft, so the pilot can't use their radar to see what is around them. Wind farms generate white noise because they are large metal structures and as such military aircraft don't fly over them because it disrupts their radar systems.
Do you expect some retaliation for the UK military for the way that your windmill interact with their spaces?
Alison: This project, although based on research on military airspace, is not only about military airspace. The idea is to show how we can exert control over the airspace above our heads and through this prevent aircraft flying through it. It's not about targeting military aircraft flights. Military airspaces aren't above cities so the windmill would not be directly targeting military airspaces if it were placed in a suburban garden. Given these parameters I see no reason why the UK military would have any issue with the work.
Nelly: That will be very interesting. And ultimately the aim of the project, what will happen next? Will this DIY wild wind farms become the new target on military aircrafts?! No, but seriously, I do think that design must be engaged, It's 'Revolution time' for designers to assume their creative responsibilities, what is the point of putting another thing out there if there is no message? That can be poetic, aesthetic, functional, provocative, emotional, performance based... In any case, I will be there, reclaiming my piece of sky, waiting on the top of my pink windmill for a wild military aircraft to pass by!
Interventions Project / Newcastle University. Group show with Michiko Nitta, Grit Hartung, Dane Whitehurst Joe Malia, Robert Phillips, Ben Singleton, Stuart Munro
40 years after the first human left his foot print on the moon, space exploration is still the subject of enthusiasm, but also of debate about its justification. Scientific expeditions, satellite launches, and the emergence of space tourism are pushing us to reconsider our relationship with the planet.
While in Montreal for the Elektra festival, i went to the Canadian Center for Architecture to discover architects Greg Lynn, Michael Maltzan, and Alessandro Pol's views on space exploration and its impact on terrestrial realities. I'm still not sure why the 3 architects were brought together under the same roof but the diversity of their vision certainly made for an exciting ride.
In the exhibition Other Space Odysseys, Lynn, Maltzan, and Poli takes us on a journey, real and virtual, that will ultimately make us see life on our little blue planet under a different light. As CCA Director Mirko Zardini explained, "Other Space Odysseys has nothing to do with Space Architecture or architecture in outer space. It is not a celebration of high-tech architecture and imagery or extreme physical and mental conditions. Instead, this exhibition proposes a letting go of architecture understood as the production of material goods in favour of architecture as the production of ideas."
Alessandro Poli's vision of the Earth was changed radically by the 1969 moon landing. Suddenly the environment that man knew had to be described and reflected upon in broader terms. The earth was not the sole reference anymore. The most impressive, solid, the largest architecture man had ever conceived almost vanished compared to the scale of the universe
His projects in the exhibition explore different proposals for connecting the earth to the new reality of outer space. The film Architettura interplanetaria (1972) as well as the related collages and sketches, which he created as a member of the radical Italian architecture group Superstudio, imagine architecture at an interplanetary scale, with a highway that links the earth to the moon, family holidays in lunar landscapes and hybrid scenery featuring moon rocks and soccer fields.
Another of Poli and Superstudio's research projects challenged the optimism and technological dependence of space exploration through the personality of a Tuscan peasant called Zeno. Unlike the astronauts of the Apollo missions, who required sophisticated capsules and suits to survive in their new environments, Zeno used and reused the same objects to become completely self-sufficient. I didn't understand whether Zeno was a fictitious character or not but i doubt he ever met Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin in Riparbella as Poli's 2008 collage would have it.
Greg Lynn's projects present a very different approach to architectural prospects offered by space exploration.
Animated movies and digitally fabricated models present New City, a parallel virtual reality in which all of the earth's inhabitants reside in a single, interconnected and manifolds city.
Also on view are models and documentation of N.O.A.H. (New Outer Atmospheric Habitat), four planets developed for the science fiction film Divide, as well as drawings and animation of space colonies that explore the notion of 'ground' in the absence of gravity.
Michael Maltzan's proposed new building for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), in Pasadena, California. His designs attempt to reflect the dichotomy between earthbound scientists and their work at the scale of outer space.
Other Space Odysseys is curated by CCA Curator of Contemporary Architecture Giovanna Borasi and CCA Director Mirko Zardini, in active collaboration with the architects.
Other Space Odysseys: Greg Lynn, Michael Maltzan, Alessandro Poli, on view at the Canadian Center for Architecture through September 19, 2010.